Maybe you've heard of that mythical place called the Court of Miracles
Where the lame can walk and the blind can see...
So it is sung in the 1996 Disney classic ’The Hunchback of Notre Dame’, based on the brilliant 1831 novel by Parisian author Victor Hugo. In the book, the Court of Miracles is the home base for criminals, outcasts and gypsies, ruled by the King of Truands; Clopin Trouillefou. Although his character is fictional, the Court of Miracles did really exist. It was a lawless area of Paris located between the rue du Caire and the rue Réaumur (in the current second arrondissement), where beggars, migrants, prostitutes and criminals resided during the reigns of Louis XIII and Louis XIV.
The title ‘court of miracles’ may sound misplaced for a stinky, muddy area inhabited by thieves and beggars. Indeed, their tricks where the name giver for this district. Many Parisians had to beg for their survival, and those with a visible handicap gathered more alms than those without physical anomalies. Therefore, beggars became masters in faking handicaps, injuries and infections. Returning to the slum after a day of begging, they would throw their walking sticks in the corner and wash off their fake injuries. Miracles happened easy at that. The lame could walk and the blind could see...
As no one as can describe the miraculous beggar's nest better than master Hugo himself, I copy a citation from his book here:
“There was a sort of sham soldier, a "naquois," as the slang expression runs, who was whistling as he undid the bandages from his fictitious wound, and removing the numbness from his sound and vigorous knee, which had been swathed since morning in a thousand ligatures. On the other hand, there was a wretched fellow, preparing with celandine and beef's blood, his "leg of God," for the next day. Two tables further on, a palmer, with his pilgrim's costume complete, was practicing the lament of the Holy Queen, not forgetting the drone and the nasal drawl. Further on, a young scamp was taking a lesson in epilepsy from an old pretender, who was instructing him in the art of foaming at the mouth, by chewing a morsel of soap.”
From: Victor Hugo – Notre Dame de Paris
When the Parisian criminal situation got worse in the second half of the 17th century, the Paris authorities had to undertake something. Gabriel Nicolas de la Reynie, Lieutenant General of the Police of Paris, was assigned with the task of ensuring the safety in Paris and of curbing the growth of the Court of Miracles area. Reynie's methods laid the basis for police forces as we know them today. He reorganized the existing police forces, which he supervised directly. The policemen were now responsible for ensuring the safety in Paris. With more police supervising the streets, it should be harder for criminals to conduct their crimes.
As social care and health conditions improved during the Enlightenment period, the number of beggars and criminals was reduced and the Court of Miracles was slowly abandoned. The remains of the area were removed during the Haussmannization, and except for Victor Hugo's story, nothing of the wondrous slum is left for us today.
On the 27th of October 2016, an exhibition of Jan Toorop's oeuvre with over 130 works opened in museum Villa Stuck in Munich. I didn't know Toorop's works, to be honest, but a quick look into the internet made me curious to go. And I was overwhelmed with the exhibition: how could one single person paint so excellently in so many different styles?
Johannes Theodorus ('Jan') Toorop was born in 1858 on the island of Java in the Dutch East Indies, where he grew up. When he was eleven years old, Jan moved to the Netherlands in order to receive better education, leaving his parents and siblings behind in the Indies.
It was soon clear that Toorop wanted to do something in the arts. He followed courses by Herman Johannes van der Weele, a painter that is counted to the second generation of the Hague School. From 1880 to 1882, Toorop studied at the State Academy of Fine Arts (Rijksacademie) in Amsterdam, and moved to Brussels afterwards. In Belgium, he joined a group of artists around expressionist/surrealist painter James Ensor, 'Les XX', with whom he worked for four years.
Within these early years of his career, Toorop worked with various styles. His early works were Realistic, but he also worked within the areas of Impressionism and Pointillistism. Many of his early paintings show scenes of simple country life: a farmer's family in a dark kitchen, hard-working men on the field, dunes and coastlines.